Table of Contents
- Demystifying animal ‘personality’ (or not): why individual variation matters to experimental biologists
Summary: Approaches used in quantitative genetics and animal personality research are useful to study the ecological and evolutionary consequences of individual variation in behaviour, physiology, performance and other complex traits.
- Can invertebrates see the e-vector of polarization as a separate modality of light?
Summary: Although invertebrates are unable to see the e-vector orientation of polarized light, they can gain valuable visual information from it.
- Innate preference and learning of colour in the male cotton bollworm moth, Helicoverpa armigera
Summary: Helicoverpa armigera, the nocturnal cotton bollworm moth, learns colours upon feeding, and discriminates colour discs depending on the chromatic contents irrespective of brightness.
- Dopaminergic inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni
Summary: Dopamine controls reproduction at multiple sites along the hypothalamic-pituitary–gonadal axis; in teleost fish, D2 receptors drive inhibition of hypothalamic GnRH1 neurons, a mechanism likely to be conserved across vertebrates.
- The unusual eyes of Xenos peckii (Strepsiptera: Xenidae) have green- and UV-sensitive photoreceptors
- The roles of tissue nitrate reductase activity and myoglobin in securing nitric oxide availability in deeply hypoxic crucian carp
Summary: Cytoprotective NO availability is important for hypoxia tolerance. Crucian carp possess an innate nitrate reductase activity, which supplements the supply of nitrite for NO generation during hypoxia.
- How the bending kinematics of swimming lampreys build negative pressure fields for suction thrust
Highlighted Article: A comparison of the swimming and hydrodynamics of control lampreys to lampreys whose spinal cord was transected mid-body reveals the hydrodynamic advantage of actively controlled swimming.
- Size-dependent physiological responses of the branching coral Pocillopora verrucosa to elevated temperature and PCO2
Summary: Physiological performance of large corals is not accurately estimated by scaling values from small corals, indicating the importance of colony size in the response of branching corals to elevated temperature and PCO2.
- Effects of acute and chronic stress on telencephalic neurochemistry and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Summary: Changes in HPI-axis reactivity and telencephalic serotonergic neurochemistry indicate allostatic load in rainbow trout kept in high densities.
- Oxidative stress during courtship affects male and female reproductive effort differentially in a wild bird with biparental care
Summary: In the brown booby, oxidative stress may arise as a cost of pre-laying reproductive investment in both sexes and constrain investment in eggs and offspring by females.
- Impact damage and repair in shells of the limpet Patella vulgata
Summary: Limpet shells have good resistance to single impacts but perform poorly under multiple impacts owing to their layered structure; impact damage is often fatal but can be repaired.
- Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies
Highlighted Article: Morpho butterfly wing scales produce their iridescent blue color with more than multilayers. The comparative macro- and microscopical properties of scales fairly agrees with the phylogeny of the genus.
- Hemolymph circulation in insect flight appendages: physiology of the wing heart and circulatory flow in the wings of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Summary: Mosquitoes employ an auxiliary heart, located underneath the thoracic scutellum, to systematically propel hemolymph (insect blood) throughout the veins of the wings.
- HIF1α and physiological responses to hypoxia are correlated in mice but not in rats
Summary: Compared with SD rats, FVB mice have higher ventilatory and metabolic responses to hypoxia, higher induction of HIF-1α, and lower Glut1 protein expression in the brainstem.
- Bumble bees regulate their intake of essential protein and lipid pollen macronutrients
Summary: Bumble bees regulate their dietary intake of proteins and lipids among synthetic diets to nutritional targets ideal for survival. These intake targets may drive pollen collection behavior in the field.
- Visual resolution and contrast sensitivity in two benthic sharks
Summary: Optokinetic experiments in two benthic shark species confirm low spatial resolution but uncover high contrast sensitivity of shark vision, a combination that favours early detection, but hinders recognition of objects.
- Three-dimensional motion tracking reveals a diving component to visual and auditory escape swims in zebrafish larvae
Summary: Vertical directionality of zebrafish escape swims highlights the importance of ecological validity in motor control research.
- Inhibition of calcium uptake during hypoxia in developing zebrafish is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor
Summary: Larval zebrafish raised in hypoxic water exhibit reduced Ca2+ uptake through a reduction in the number of ecac-expressing ionocytes, and these effects are probably associated with the activation of HIF-1αb during hypoxia.